Wings Over Israel
copyright © 2006-2008 Third Wire
Wings Over Israel recreates the intense air combat experience in the
skies over Middle East during three major historical conflicts - 1967 Six-Day
War, 1973 Yom Kippur War, and 1982 Lebanon War.
This section provides a short introduction to the major tasks involved with
taking off, finding your target, hitting it, and making a successful landing.
If you're new to flight simulations, these instructions will help you get
started. Even if you're a veteran, you'll find some of the commands in this
For a complete list of commands, see Default Key
Commands at the end of this manual.
By default, you start the game in the air. However, you can change the Mission
Start Position setting in the Gameplay Options Screen to
start on the runway.
Taking off is relatively simple. Once you receive clearance from the tower,
Check to make sure the flaps are partially extended for take-off. If not,
extend the flap to Take-off setting (press F once).
Power up your engine to 100% thrust (press =).
Release the wheel brakes (press B).
Keep the nose pointed straight ahead using the rudder keys (comma (,) and
period (.) keys).
As you approach the end of the runway, pull back gently on the joystick to lift
the nosewheel off the ground at about a 10% angle.
After the aircraft lifts off the runway and you start climbing, raise the
landing gear (press G).
Finding your way around is fairly easy through the use of the Head-Up Display
(HUD). This section assumes that all Gameplay options are set to Easy or
Normal; for Hard settings, you may need to rely on bearings and cockpit
instruments to find your next waypoint.
Your waypoints show up in the Planning Map before
the mission. During flight, your next waypoint shows up either as a white
triangle in your forward view, or as a white cone on the perimeter of your
screen. Steer towards it to maneuver to the next waypoint. Note that you always
have a preliminary waypoint just before the target area or rendezvous point,
and just before landing.
You can select the next or previous waypoint to switch them in mid-mission. Be
aware that violating the planned flight path can consume precious fuel.
W / Shift+W
Select next/previous waypoint.
Activates autopilot and flies toward next waypoint.
Skips forward in time to the next encounter.
Display the in-flight map.
Your next order of business is to find and lock onto a target. You can do this
either by bringing a target into view or using your radar. For guided weapons
that require a radar lock, you must acquire a target prior to firing weapons.
Even your gunsight relies on your aircraft's targeting system to compensate for
range and motion.
You can select any target you can see out of the front view. A selected target
appears in square brackets on the HUD. If the target moves out of view, a cone
appears to "point" you toward your current target.
T / Shift+T
Target next/previous air enemy or unidentified target. Depending on your HUD
settings, information may appear onscreen about your target.
Target closest air enemy or unidentified target.
E / Shift+E
Target next/previous enemy ground object.
Select closest enemy ground object.
If you have advanced Radar option enabled, and if your aircraft is equipped with
a radar, you can also use the radar to search and track targets beyond visual
range. More specifics of radar usages are covered in Using
PgUp / Shift+PgUp
Switch radar mode - Search / Boresight / Ground Map / Terrain Avoidance.
PgDn / Shift+PgDn
Cycle to next/previous radar range setting.
Home / Shift+Home
Select next/previous radar target on the radar display. (Your radar must first
be in Search mode, and a target must be within radar range).
Lock on to the currently selected target and go to Target Tracking mode.
Using a Weapon
After you have something targeted, you're ready to fire your gun, missile, or
rocket or ready to drop your bomb. Before you can do so, however, you must
select a weapon.
Backspace / Shift+Backspace
Switch to next/previous Air-to-Air (ATA) weapon.
Backslash (\) / Shift+(\)
Switch to next/previous Air-to-Ground (ATG) weapon.
Spacebar (or Joystick button 1)
Fire primary gun or cannon.
Enter (or Joystick button 2)
Fire/release currently selected missile, bomb, or rocket. (Some guided weapons
may require a lock.)
Some weapons require a radar lock, and until it is achieved, you won't be able
to fire the guided weapon. Some heat seeking missiles will sound an audible
tone when locked on. You do not have to keep the target in view after launch to
hit targets with heat seeking weapons.
For radar-guided weapons, you must wait to fire until you see a solid yellow
diamond over the target in the HUD. Whenever you launch a radar-guided weapon,
remember that you must keep the target within the cone of your radar's view to
maintain the lock.
Weapons such as rockets and forward guns don't require a lock and can be fired
whenever you want. Your gunsight is somewhat automated and can help you aim.
Just place the red gun reticle over the target and fire at will. The system
will automatically compensate for your target's range and help you "lead" the
bullets into his path.
You may end the mission at any time by pressing ESC key. However, if you end the
mission before your mission is accomplished, it will be recorded as a failed
You may, of course, choose to continue to fly back to your home base and attempt
Landing is a bit trickier than taking off because you must control both your
angle, descent rate and speed. The main instruments you need to observe are the
airspeed indicator, altimeter and vertical velocity indicator. Jets land at a
high rate of speed, and swept-wing aircraft in particular don't generate a lot
of lift at steep angles of attack.
In general, here's what you need to do to land:
As you approach the second-to-last waypoint, begin your lineup with the runway.
On approach, begin gently reducing your throttle setting to 25% (press -).
Press F twice to fully extend your flaps and gain extra lift.
Press G to lower your landing gear.
Keep the nose angled up at about a 10 to 15degree angle.
Keep your airspeed between approximately 150 and 200 knots and stay on course
with the runway. You should descend at about 500 or 600 feet per minute.
a. If you need to slow down, pull back slightly on the stick to raise the nose.
b. If you need to speed up, lower the nose slightly.
c. If you need to increase your descent rate, reduce the throttle. Conversely,
increase the throttle to decrease the descent rate.
d. You can also temporarily apply the airbrake to slow down (press S to toggle
e. If you run into real problems, switch on autopilot for a safe landing (press
At about 100 feet above the runway, flare by pulling back gently on the stick.
This lowers the rate of descent and executes a soft landing. (Be careful, as
raising the nose too high may result in the engine nozzle hitting the ground
After touchdown, reduce throttle to 0% (press -).
Engage the wheel brakes (press B).
Press ESC to end the mission.
Every successful mission starts with a good plan. Wings Over Israel offers
a variety of entertaining mission types, including instant action, single
missions, a full campaign and multiplayer games. But before you rush to suit up
and get off the ground, you've got to properly equip your aircraft for the task
Your journey into the skies starts on the ground, beginning with the Main
Screen. From there, you select a pilot (except for Instant Action) and a
mission type. After you study the mission briefing, you can then memorize your
waypoint route and outfit your bird with fuel, bombs, missiles and guns.
Finally, you'll be ready to take on the best strategic maneuvers your foes have
The first thing you see when you start the game is the Main Screen. Here, you
select what type of mission you want to fly. You can also view statistics for
the current pilot or another pilot you've previously saved.
The Main Screen lists the following options. Click a button to access that
Jump immediately into flight in a randomly generated mission.
Load a historical mission, or configure a new mission and fly it.
Load the currently active pilot and campaign, or start a new campaign with a
View vital statistics for all of your saved pilots, or create a new pilot to
man your aircraft
Set options for gameplay, graphics, sound, controls, network and other
Closes the game.
Displays a small menu that allows you to view other screens, see the credits,
and quit the game. The small green aircraft icon in the upper left corner
appears on every base screen and has quick links to the Main
Screen, Pilot Record Screen and
Options Screen. You can also select Quit to close the game.
Jump into the cockpit and quickly engage enemy targets in an Instant Action
When you select Instant Action from the Main Screen, you immediately find
yourself high in the air near enemy territory. In some cases, you may even find
yourself doggedly evading a bandit who's on your tail. With an Instant Action
mission, you don't get to choose your aircraft, enemies, or setting - it's a
surprise each and every time you enter battle. You also don't have to deal with
takeoffs and landings.
At the end of each Instant Mission - after winning, crashing, or dying - you see
the Debrief Screen.
Create and fly randomly generated missions, or fly historical missions.
When you click Single Mission in the Main Screen, you're able to select a
specific set some parameters for the mission. Another difference between a
Single and Instant Mission is that the results of Single Missions are saved to
your pilot's permanent record.
You have several options in the Single Mission Screen. The left side of the file
folder shows two buttons, and the right side displays the parameters for the
Configure a new mission. (The game remembers the last settings you used.)
Load a custom mission or a previously saved mission. You can select a
previously saved mission from the Mission Filename list.
Once the mission is configured or loaded to your satisfaction, click Accept to
move to the Hangar Screen.
Return to the Main Screen and cancel this mission.
New Mission Parameters
Setting different mission parameters can drastically affect the difficulty of a
mission. For instance, it's going to be harder to fly a reconnaissance mission
when there is heavy enemy air activity, and if you want to up the ante for your
pilot, try setting up heavy enemy air activity and heavy enemy air-defense
You can alter the following options for a new Single Mission:
Select an aircraft to fly on this mission - the A-4E/F/H Ahit, F-4E Kurnass,
F-15A Baz, F-16A Netz, Mirage III Shahak, Kfir C-2, Nesher.
Select a specific year for this mission. Different weapons became available at
different date, so select a later year to make more advanced weapons available.
(this applies to both friendly and enemy weapons!)
Select a mission type - Random Mission (program randomly picks a mission),
Fighter Sweep, Combat Air Patrol, Intercept, Escort, Strike, Close Air Support,
Air Defense Suppression, Armed Reconnaissance, Anti-Ship, or Reconnaissance.
(See Mission Types for details on different
Select a specific map and terrain type – Israel is the game's primary map.
Mission Start Time
Select a time of day for the mission - Random / Dawn / Morning / Noon /
Afternoon / Evening / Dusk / Night.
Set the weather conditions - Random / Clear / Scattered / Broken (partly
cloudy) / Overcast / Inclement (stormy).
Enemy Air Activity
Select the approximate level of enemy activity for the mission- Random / Light
/ Normal / Heavy. This sets the number of airborne enemies you'll likely
encounter during the mission.
Enemy Air Defense
Select the approximate level of enemy ground-based anti-aircraft units you'll
face during the mission - Random / Light / Normal / Heavy.
Participate in a full-length war and fly dynamic campaign missions.
The Campaign Screen allows you to start a new campaign mission series, or load
an existing campaign that you've created. Once you begin a new campaign, you
can't change the pilot you're using for that particular campaign. However, you
can start a new campaign with a different pilot.
Two buttons appear on the left side of the screen. When you select one, the
right-hand page changes to reflect your chosen option.
Starts a new campaign. After you choose this option, set the campaign
parameters and then click Accept. When prompted, enter a save name for the new
Enables you to load a saved campaign. Select the campaign you want to load from
the drop-down list on the right-hand side of the screen, then click Accept.
Prompts you for a campaign name and saves the new campaign, then displays the
Returns you to the Main Screen and cancels the
New Campaign Parameters
When you opt to create a new campaign, you can set the following options:
Displays a list of pilots you've created. Select one to associate that pilot
with this campaign. That pilot will still be able to fly Single Missions.
Displays a list of available campaigns.
Displays the available service branches by nationality.
Displays a list of available squadrons. The list varies, depending on which
service branch you select.
At the Easy level, your success has less effect on the success of other units
involved in the campaign war. If you perform poorly, other battle areas can
still achieve overall success. The opposite is true for Hard campaigns - your
performance guides the overall performance for your side. Normal falls
somewhere in between.
Controls how often your base receives supplies, and how many supplies are
delivered - Limited / Normal / Unlimited. Limited resupply means that you're
much more likely to run out of weapons before the next convoy arrives. Normal
gives you slightly more weapons, and Unlimited means that you never need to
worry about running out of supplies.
The Hangar Screen is your pre-flight area. From this area you can review the
mission briefing, alter your aircraft's ordnance loadout, view and adjust your
mission waypoints, and select a pilot for the mission. The main Hangar Screen
page shows the mission briefing. Along with your squadron, callsign
and aircraft information, it also displays the current date (in game time).
Planned takeoff, target arrival and landing times for the mission appear as
well in 24-hour military time.
The Hangar Screen contains six buttons, four of which activate subscreens.
Lets you proceed to the Loadout Screen and adjust weapon and fuel settings for
up to four aircraft in your wing. You can also customize your aircraft's
appearance in the Loadout area and, in some mission types, select the type of
aircraft you want to fly.
Shows the Planning Map Screen, where you can view and adjust waypoints. You can
also see all friendly and some enemy positions in this area, along with basic
aircraft and base information.
Shows the pilot assignments for this mission.
Returns you to the previous screen (Single Mission
Puts you into the cockpit and starts the mission.
In the Loadout Screen, you equip your aircraft with ordnance appropriate for
the selected or assigned mission type, whether it's a Single Mission or the
next mission in a Campaign game. (See Mission Types
for information about different types of missions you can fly in the game.) You
can view or configure your own aircraft, as well as that of your wingman and
any other aircraft flying with you.
The functionality of this screen differs slightly depending on what type of
mission you're flying and what branch of the military you choose. Single
Missions allow you a little more flexibility than Campaign Missions, since your
aircraft, callsign, squadron alignment and aircraft appearance are
configurable. (These items are not editable for a Campaign mission.)
The top right side of the screen has a number of drop-down lists. The lower
right side of the screen details the current aircraft weight (calculated by
adding the fuel, ammunition and external weapon weights to the raw weight of
You can set the following options in the Loadout Screen for all aircraft
involved in your flight. When you're finished with all of the loadouts, click
EXIT to return to the Hangar Screen. When you
re-enter the Loadout Screen, the settings for your aircraft display by default.
Displays a list of each individual member of your flight. Your aircraft is
always designated by "1-1", and that of your wingman by "1-2." Select a
callsign entry to configure the loadout for that particular aircraft.
For Single Missions, this drop-down list lets you assign an aircraft type to
the currently selected callsign. For Campaign missions, the aircraft type is
fixed, but you can adjust loadouts as needed. Also note that in Campaign
missions you start with a limited number of weapon stores and aircraft.
Periodically, your base is resupplied with new munitions and aircraft. The best
way to ensure that this happens in a timely manner is to successfully complete
all escort missions for incoming supply vehicles.
Displays a drop-down list of individual serial numbers for each aircraft of the
selected type. This unique number identifies each individual aircraft on the
For Single Missions, sets the chosen aircraft's paint job. A small sample of
the selected scheme appears to the right of this drop-down list.
For Single Missions, displays a drop-down list of national military air force
emblems for your aircraft.
For Single Missions, enables you to select squadron markings, which will appear
on the exterior of your aircraft. In a Campaign game, your squadron is
The Planning Map Screen shows an overhead view of the mission area, complete
with color-coded icons that represent friendly and enemy units. You should use
this screen to become familiar with the navigation layout of the mission, the
enemy line, and the type and number of known foes.
The map shows the following elements of information for each mission. You can
click-and-drag anywhere on the map to scroll in any direction.
Displays basic information about the mission, target area and base. This area
also displays waypoint and unit information, as described below.
Blue icons represent friendly air and ground units, and red icons denote enemy
units. The type of unit appears as an image on top of the icon. When you move
the cursor over a friendly or enemy unit icon, known information about that
unit appears on the chalkboard, including the unit type, number of units and
home base. As you win more Campaign missions and gather more intelligence,
you'll be able to spot more targets and view more information about them in
The small yellow triangles indicate waypoints for your flight. All aircraft
flying with you follow these waypoints. Although the set waypoints are optimal
for the mission, you can click-and-drag these waypoints to different locations.
Be aware that extending the mission path requires additional fuel. Whenever you
move the mouse pointer over a waypoint triangle, details about that navigation
point appear on the chalkboard.
The red, jagged line on the terrain indicates the front line of battle. As you
progress through the Campaign, this line will move to reflect your success or
The black circle surrounds the area containing the main mission target. If
you're having trouble winning a particular mission, you can try entering the
target area from a different point.
The magnifying glass icons allow you to zoom the map view in (+) and out (-).
The icon with the dashed outline re-centers the map over the target area.
Returns you to the Hangar Screen.
The Pilot Roster screen lists the current game date, as well as the type of
aircraft being flown and the names of all pilots involved in the current
flight. Pertinent information about each pilot's experience, success and
current condition also appears here. Note that pilots not involved in this
mission do not appear on this screen.
Click EXIT to return to the Hangar Screen.
The following information displays for each pilot:
Shows the pilot's first name, last name and current military rank.
Displays the total number of combat missions flown by the pilot.
Tallies the number of Air-to-Air (A/A) and Air-to-Ground (A/G) kills made by
States whether the pilot is available for duty or not. During a Campaign game,
the game tracks the status of all pilots in your squadron. As they get shot
down, they can become KIA (killed in action), MIA (missing in action), or POW
(prisoner of war) and will no longer be available to fly the mission. Pilot
replacements are flown in on a semi-regular basis.
Describes the current morale level for the pilot.
Describes the current physical condition of the pilot - Fatigued, Normal,
Rested and Refreshed. Refreshed is the highest level available
Lists the callsign for the pilot's current aircraft assignment.
Anytime you complete a mission, die, or press ESC, the Debrief Screen appears.
From here you can view your score for the mission, the length of the mission,
the success/failure message and a Top 10 score list. You will also view any new
medals you receive as a result of earning points for that mission.
You have several other options in this screen. From any other post-mission
screen, you can click Debrief at any time to return to the mission summary.
Shows who fired what weapons during the course of the mission, the number of
launches/rounds, the number of successful hits and the percentage rate of
success. Finally, a kill tally also appears for each pilot involved in the
Here, every event that occurs during the mission is logged and time-stamped.
Fly this same mission again.
Save the mission score for the currently selected pilot and return to the
View detailed pilot records containing a complete history and statistics for
This screen shows a detailed record for the currently selected pilot. For each
pilot, you can choose to view the individual record or the record for
Displays a drop-down list of all saved pilots. Select a pilot to display his or
her information on the right side of the screen.
Displays a drop-down list of available pilot photos. You can add to this list
by placing additional *.BMP images in the PilotData folder in the game
Last / First Name
Lets you type in a name for your pilot.
Lets you type in a callsign or "handle" for your pilot.
Returns you to the Main Screen.
The rank, score, ratings and missions that appear in the right-hand box reflect
the pilot's accumulated scores. When you click the Pilot Record button all
missions flown in single-player modes are calculated into these results. When
you click the Multiplayer Record button only multiplayer missions are
The following stats appear for the selected pilot:
Shows the current military rank. As you earn points with this pilot, you earn
medals and advance in rank
Shows the cumulative score. You receive points for each mission based on
success in achieving the objectives.
Overall rating of the pilot.
Shows the kill tally (number of enemies destroyed)
Breaks out the number of aircraft kills.
Breaks out the number of vehicle and ground unit kills.
Breaks out the number of building destroyed..
Shows the number of friendly objects destroyed (hopefully accidentally!) by the
Number of times the pilot was shot down.
Ratio of kill tally divided by number of times shot down.
Shows the total hours flown by this pilot.
Last Flown Type
Shows the last type of aircraft flown by this pilot.
Displays the total number of missions flown, the number of missions that was
successful, and percentage of missions success.
Shows the total number of campaigns flown, the number of campaigns won, and the
percentage of campaigns won.
Adjust various game settings such as gameplay, graphics, sound and controls
You can change many of the game's options by setting them in the Options
Screen. To access the options from anywhere in the game prior to flight, simply
click the green aircraft icon in the upper left corner of the screen, and then
Note: You cannot reset options while you're airborne.
You have access to four Option Screens - Gameplay,
Graphics, Sound, and Control.
Click on the name of a section to jump to that option category.
EXIT Takes you back to whichever screen you were in prior to accessing the
The Gameplay subscreen lets you change difficulty settings that affect how hard
or easy the game is to play.
Mission Start Position
Position of your aircraft when the mission starts - Near Target / Air / Runway.
This determines whether you begin the game in the air or not, and how close you
are to the target objective.
Your perspective when the mission starts - External / Cockpit. An external view
positions you so that you see the outside of your aircraft; a cockpit view
seats you behind the controls. See Key Commands
for details on how to change camera views.
Sets the unit of measurements used for display - Default / Metric / English.
Metric uses standard units of meters and kilometers. English uses feet,
nautical miles and knots. Default selects the unit based on the aircraft type
-US and British aircraft use English unit, while most other aircraft use
Enemy Skill Level
Skill of your opponents - Easy / Normal / Hard. Easy: Enemies aren't all that
accurate - they'll fire less often and miss more often. Also, their flying
skills are below average. Medium: Opponents are a slightly better shot at range
and are better at executing combat maneuvers. Hard: Opponents are seasoned
veterans who pick their shots carefully and are fairly accurate. Dogfighting
these enemies won't be an easy task, offensively or defensively.
Overall difficulty of the game, based on a number of option settings - Easy /
Normal / Hard / Customize. Click Customize to display additional drop-down
menus and options (listed below). For all of the customizable options, you may
select Easy / Normal / Hard. The default setting is Normal.
Options under Customize...
+ Flight Model
Controls the flight model for the aircraft. Easy: Arcade-type flight model. You
have a lot of flight control due to limited external aerodynamic forces and the
aircraft flies where the nose is pointing. Normal: More accurate flight model.
No true stalls or spins exist, but you must deal with some external aerodynamic
forces. Hard: Most complex flight model. External forces can cause you to stall
out or enter an unrecoverable spin. Realistic flight control limits make the
diagonal motion of the joystick less useful for rolling during high
angle-of-attack (AoA) maneuvers.
+ Weapon Effectiveness
Controls behavior and realism of weapons. Easy: Guns and weapons are very
effective. Even the simple nose cannon can penetrate armor. All weapons have a
wide blast radius and will not malfunction, so you need less accuracy when
aiming at your target. Normal: Cannon rounds will still puncture armor, but
otherwise guns and weapons do normal damage. Missile launch parameters exist,
and missiles may malfunction if fired outside of those parameters. Hard: Gun
and cannon rounds observe armor resistances, so attacking the front of a tank
with a gun is a moot point. Strict missile parameters exist. Some missiles have
a built-in, realistic firing delay of up to two seconds.
+ Radar Display
Controls the realism of the radar control and display. Easy: The radar
automatically marks targets as friendly or enemy. Additionally, you have a
360-degree view of the area - no blind spots exist. Normal: The radar has a
limited forward front view and uses realistic ground clutter and return
signals. Targets remain on the radar screen as long as they remain in the cone
of view. The radar automatically tracks targets as soon as they move into radar
range. Hard: The radar realistically displays targets as momentary blips. It
can take 6 seconds or longer to enter tracking mode, depending on the strength
of the radar signal and the proximity of the target.
+ Visual Targeting
Controls how targets are identified and selected. Easy: You can target
anything, even things you cannot see, and all targets are marked as friendly or
enemy. Normal: You can only target objects that are within visual range and not
obstructed by mountains, clouds or other objects. All targets are marked as
friendly or enemy. Hard: Target identification does not automatically occur,
and you must fly close enough to an object to determine whether it is friendly
or enemy. You can only target objects currently in your viewing range.
+ HUD Display
Controls how the game's head-up display (HUD) operates. Easy: All available
information displays on the HUD, including flight information, target
information and waypoints. The targeting square shows the target's type,
alignment and range. Normal: You can only view target flight information when
you have the target within proper radar range. The targeting square doesn't
show the target's type, alignment or range. Hard: Your flight information and
waypoint information are the only elements that display on the HUD. Target
information does not appear.
Controls how difficult it is to land the aircraft. Easy: If you lower the gear,
you land successfully. Speed and angle are not factors. Normal: If you lower
the gear and don't come down too steeply or too fast, you land successfully. If
the descent rate is too high, however, you may crash. Hard: You must descend at
the correct angle and speed to make a successful landing. Violating landing
parameters may result in gear damage or collapse, or even worse, a crash.
Controls mid-air collisions and collisions with the ground. Easy: You cannot
collide with another aircraft in the air. Also, crashing into the ground
doesn't do any damage. Normal: You cannot collide with friendly aircraft, but
you can hit an enemy. Damage from collisions is reduced, and you won't usually
die as a result. Hard: You can collide with both friendly and enemy aircraft.
If you crash into the ground, you will probably die.
Controls physical effects of gravitational forces (G-forces) that occur as a
result of quick turns. Easy: Blackout and redout never occur. You can push or
pull as many negative or positive Gs as you like. Normal: You may experience
redout and blackout during excessive G-forces. However, the effects are
short-lived. Hard: Blackouts and redouts occur under realistic circumstances,
and the side effects remain active longer.
+ Ammo Usage
Controls the rate at which ammunition is expended. Easy: You have an unlimited
supply of gun ammunition, cannon rounds and missiles. Normal: You can run out
of ammunition and armament, but you start out with twice as much. Hard: You
carry a realistic amount of ammunition, and you can only use your guns for a
few short bursts.
+ Fuel Usage
Controls how quickly the aircraft consumes fuel. Easy: Your fuel supply is
infinite, even when you use afterburners. Normal: Fuel is consumed at half of
the normal rate during regular flight, and slightly less than the normal rate
when you're using afterburners. Hard: Fuel consumption is realistic, and you
can't use afterburners very much without risking a fuel shortage later in the
The Graphics subscreen allows you to change options that affect video settings.
In general, the fewer textures and less detail you specify, the better the game
performance. Older, slower machines operate best at lower graphical settings.
If you have a top-end system, you can leave everything on the highest setting
and enjoy increased video quality.
Medium settings are generally recommended for machines that meet the minimum
system requirements. However, if the video is jerky or slow, try disabling some
of these settings or lowering the detail levels.
Specifies which video card the game should use. Normally only one video card
will be listed here. If multiple cards appear, choose the option that
corresponds to your 3D video card.
Sets the resolutions for your monitor during gameplay. The list that appear
here are different, depending on which video card you have installed. If you're
having performance problems, you can reduce the game's resolution setting.
Display Aspect Ratio
Sets the aspect ratio for your monitor, 4:3, 5:4, 16:9, or 16:10. Standard
CRT monitors typically have 4:3 or 16:9 ratio,
while newer LCD monitors typically have 5:4 or 16:10 aspect ratio.
Sets whether or not you see a blinding "lens flare" effect (multiple halos)
when you are flying in the direction of the sun. Your options are as follows -
Always On / On External Views / Always Off. Choosing the second option means
that you won't see any lens flares while viewing action from inside the
Graphics Detail Level
Overall level of graphics details you see during flight, based on a number of
option settings - Low / Normal / High / Unlimited / Customize. Click Customize
to display additional drop-down menus and options (listed below). These
settings greatly affect frame rate.
Options under Customize...
+ Object Detail
Controls level of detail and distance limits for 3D objects. Low: Fewer
polygons exist for each object. Some visual effects such as reflections and
decals are turned off. Medium: Objects have more art polygons and appear more
detailed at close range. High: Objects appear highly detailed both at range and
up close. All visual effects and decals are turned on.
+ Object Texture
Controls the level of texture detail for objects. Low: Object textures are
limited to 128x128 detail. Medium: Object textures are limited to 256x256.
High: Object textures are limited to 512x512. Unlimited: Object textures have
+ Cockpit Texture
Acts identically to object textures, but applies only for the 3d virtual
+ Cockpit Mirrors
Toggles the rearview mirror on/off. When active, this option significantly
slows down your frame rate, as each scene must be rendered twice.
+ Cockpit Reflection
As above, but toggles the transparent, interior cockpit reflections on the
canopy glass on/off.
Controls the distance and type of object that can cast shadow. Low: No shadows
are cast. Medium: Aircraft cast shadow only in external view and only at close
range. High: Aircraft and some ground objects cast shadow. Unlimited: All
objects cast shadow at furthest distance.
+ Effects Detail
Controls the detail level for special effects, such as smoke, fire and
explosions. Low: Visual effects are short-lived and don't have much particulate
detail. Medium: Particle effects are denser, and visual effects last longer.
High: All effects are shown at full detail, and the effects remain onscreen for
+ Terrain Detail
Controls how detailed the terrain appears at various distances. Low: Terrain is
represented as a simple mesh. Medium: Terrain shows more hills and valleys.
High: Terrain is at highest detail.
+ Terrain Texture
Controls the level of texture detail for terrain. Low: terrain textures are
limited to 128x128 detail. Medium: terrain textures are limited to 256x256.
High: terrain textures limited to 512x512. Unlimited: terrain textures
have unlimited detail, and have additional noise detail added
(with proper Shader support).
+ Horizon Distance
Determines the distance to the horizon - Near / Normal / Far / Unlimited.
Note that this only affects terrain. Enemy object and aircraft
visibility distances are not affected.
+ Ground Objects
Controls how many objects (such as trees and buildings) appear on the ground.
Low: Only important ground targets and buildings are displayed. Medium: Some
trees and non-mission critical buildings also appear. High: All trees and
buildings appear on the ground.
+ Water Detail
Controls how water is rendered. Low: Water texture is rendered just as normal
terrain texture. Medium: Water texture has specular highlights and appears
shinier. High: Water texture is animated (with proper Shader support).
The Sound subscreen lets you change audio options for the game and any external
speakers you have attached to your computer.
To adjust the volume slider bars, click on the desired part of the bar. You can
also click-and-drag the slider left to reduce volume, or right to increase
Adjusts the main master sound level for the game.
Changes the volume of in-flight radio conversations.
Changes the volume of the in-game music.
Sets the number of sound channels to use - 8 / 16 / 24 / 32. The higher the
setting, the richer the sound.
Setup Sets the speaker direction - Normal Stereo / Reverse Stereo. Switch the
setting to reverse the left and right speakers in the game.
Toggles subtitles on and off for all radio speech.
The Control subscreen lets you adjust your joystick's sensitivity and deadzone
Changes how responsive your joystick is to movement. Slide the bar left to
reduce sensitivity, or right to increase sensitivity.
Adjusts the non-responsive area of the joystick around the center position.
Slide the bar left to reduce the amount of "dead" space, or right to increase
it. A low deadzone value means that a slight joystick movement has a greater
effect on your movement than the same movement with a high deadzone value.
Change key mappings in this screen. The default control list is loaded by
default, but you can click Customize to change the key mappings. If you choose
to customize, a new *.INI file will be saved in the Controls subdirectory under
the main game folder. You can then select the control list you want by clicking
the drop-down list and choosing a key mapping option.
This section covers the basic forces that operate on your aircraft, gives an
overview of the cockpit and its instruments, illustrates some basic combat
maneuvers and how to use weapons, as well as providing details about all the
aircraft found in the game.
Four forces operate on all aircraft: lift, gravity, thrust and drag. It is the
combination of these forces that allows a plane to fly.
Lift keeps an aircraft airborne, and is mostly generated by airflow over and
under the wings. A lot of factors are involved in how much lift is present at
any given moment, including a plane's airspeed, the shape and position of its
wings and their angle of attack. Gravity, on the other hand, is always constant
and is the force counteracting lift, trying to pull an aircraft straight
towards earth, no matter its orientation. The balance between these two
determines whether an aircraft ascends or descends in level flight.
Thrust propels an aircraft forwards and is adjustable by throttle. In jets it
is generated by turbojet engines and afterburners, if so equipped. It is
counteracted by drag, the amount of friction a plane's shape must overcome when
flying through the air. Thrust and drag are affected by a number of factors,
including air density, variable at different altitudes.
Axes of Movement and Controls
Aircraft have three axes of movement: pitch, roll and yaw. Each has a
corresponding flight control surface. Sufficient airflow over these control
surfaces allows a pilot to "steer" a plane in an individual or a combination of
Pitch is the angle of the nose of a plane relative to the ground and is
controlled by an elevator or an all-moving horizontal stabilizer (found to be
more effective as aircraft approached high subsonic and supersonic speeds).
Elevators and moving tail surfaces are found at the rear of an aircraft and are
controlled by pushing the flight control stick forward or pulling it backward.
This is the quickest and most effective way to make your plane's nose point up
Roll is a rotating movement on the longitudinal axis running through the center
of a plane from front to back, also known as bank. When an aircraft banks, one
wing rises or lowers relative to the other. Roll is operated by ailerons, found
on the trailing edge of each wing. These are activated by pushing the flight
stick from side to side. If you want to change your aspect from right side up
to inverted - or any position in between - use the ailerons.
Yaw is movement of the nose on a horizontal plane, much like the steering of a
car. Yaw is controlled by the rudder, a vertical airfoil found on the tail of a
plane. It is operated by a set of pedals, which also control the nose wheel
when on the ground. In aircraft with a high sweepback to the wings, the rudder
can also be used to initiate roll when the wings are at a high angle of attack
and ailerons prove ineffective.
Following Newton's First Law of Motion, which states that "an object at rest
tends to stay at rest and an object in motion tends to stay in motion," objects
also naturally resist a change of state to their motion (velocity); this
resistance is called inertia. The more mass that an object has, the greater the
effect of inertia. How this applies to aircraft is that they will tend to
resist a change to their path of movement, despite the pilot moving the
controls. That is, the vehicle's momentum will want to continue to carry it
along its center of mass's original path. While an aircraft's orientation in
space may change, its actual flight path may lag behind where the aircraft is
pointing, and it can take a while for the plane to "catch up" to its new
heading. The higher the velocity, and the greater the mass, the more evident
this is. Unless you have chosen to use the Easy flight model, remember that an
aircraft isn't like a train on rails that will instantaneously go exactly where
it's pointed. You have to take into account its inertia. This is especially
important if you are planning on making wild maneuvers with a full bomb load or
at high speeds!
Angle of Attack
On the pitch axis, the difference between where the nose is pointed and where
the plane is actually traveling (its velocity vector) is called the Angle of
Attack (AoA). Often times even when the nose appears level with the horizon the
aircraft may still be ascending or descending according to how much lift is
being generated by the wings.
By increasing the angle of attack, both more lift (up to a point!) and more
drag are generated. Unfortunately, this added drag will have a degenerative
effect on speed, and this in turn decreases lift. The deceleration can be
counteracted by applying more throttle if there is more power available and,
when used on the vertical plane, thrust combined with lift can overcome the
force of gravity. As you can imagine, it's all a delicate balancing act!
On the yaw axis, the difference between where the nose is pointing and where
the plane is actually traveling is known as the slip angle. Having a high slip
angle greatly increases drag, as airflow slams into the side of the aircraft
rather than parting around it. In combat it can sometimes be useful to
momentarily have a high slip angle to bring the nose to bear on a target.
Lift is generated by wings at an angle roughly perpendicular to where they
attach to the aircraft, originating from its center of mass. The direction in
which lift occurs is called the lift vector. In level flight this is straight
up, away from the ground, and directly opposite to the force of gravity. By
rotating on the roll axis, the lift vector no longer remains in precise
opposition to gravity, and the balance between the two is disturbed. With less
lift opposing gravity, the plane naturally loses altitude. In flight pilots
often anticipate and counter this loss by pointing the nose slightly above the
horizon when banking. The degree to which the lift vector varies from the
direct opposite of the force of gravity is called the bank angle.
Stalls occur when there is not enough airflow over the wings to generate lift.
The higher an aircraft's speed, the more lift it creates; conversely, the
slower it travels, the less it generates. Eventually, it can slow down enough
that lift no longer counteracts the force of gravity, and the plane will simply
drop. This is known as a low speed stall and the velocity at which it happens
will vary between designs of aircraft. The only way to recover from such a
situation is to increase speed so that lift can once again be generated by the
wings. A low speed stall close to the ground can be especially deadly, since
there may not be enough time or altitude to recover.
Stalls can also occur at high speeds. Generally speaking, the greater a wing's
angle of attack, the more lift it generates. There comes a point, however,
where the angle of the wing is sufficiently steep that airflow over it becomes
disrupted and so turbulent so that the wing can longer create lift, despite a
high velocity. This is known as a high speed or an accelerated stall. Easing
off back pressure on the stick, thereby decreasing the angle of attack of the
wing, will allow proper airflow to once again resume and lift will be restored.
High speed stalls most often happen during violent maneuvers.
Many of the fighter planes modeled in Wings Over Israel have a high
sweepback to the wings. Sweepback was first utilized by the Germans during WWII
with their revolutionary Me-262 jet fighter, and it was subsequently discovered
to be vital for aircraft that would be traveling at high subsonic and
supersonic speeds. Highly swept wings require a higher angle of attack to
produce the same lift as straight wings, but this is a fair trade-off for the
higher speeds they allow. They also don't share the same stall characteristics.
As they reach higher and higher angles of attack, the rate at which lift
increases actually declines; finally, lift itself actually decreases without
the sharp break that happens with traditional wings. Furthermore, at
particularly high angles of attack, the rolling effect produced by ailerons is
significantly reduced and can actually create adverse yaw effects that can only
barely be countered by the rudder. Therefore, in this particular situation,
using the rudder and sideslipping creates more roll and proves more effective
than using the ailerons, known as "dihedral effect."
Fighter sweeps are the most basic type of sortie for combat aircraft. They are
an offensive mission by fighters to seek out and destroy enemy aircraft or
targets of opportunity in a specified area. There are normally no assigned
goals, except to exert influence over a region and to maintain air superiority.
Combat Air Patrol (CAP)
Combat Air Patrols involve flying within a dedicated area and remaining on the
lookout for incoming enemy air threats. Aircraft are not allowed to stray too
far from their assigned waypoints, and often have to loiter for long periods of
time. Any hostile aircraft that enter the CAP area are to be destroyed before
they can reach their targets.
Intercepts are defensive missions with the goal of engaging specific aerial
threats that have been identified by friendly forces. Planes are vectored to
close in on hostile aircraft, often heavily laden with bombs or Air-to- Ground
ordnance, and are to prevent them from reaching their targets.
Escorts are fighters that have been tasked to stay close to and defend friendly
aircraft from hostile air attacks. Escorted aircraft are often strike fighters
or bombers, and escorts usually fly in close formation with them. The goal of
an escort mission is not to destroy enemies, but to protect the assigned
aircraft. Convincing enemy fighters to break off an attack is a key ingredient
of a successful escort mission.
Strike missions involve attacking enemy surface targets either in close support
of ground forces or to knock out defenses and other targets deep behind enemy
lines. Specific Air-to-Ground ordnance suitable for the target is almost always
required and is only to be jettisoned when directly attacked, likely preventing
any possibility of mission success.
Close Air Support (CAS)
Close Air Support means to engage enemy ground units close to, and in support
of, friendly ground forces from the air. CAS missions are often directed by
Forward Air Controllers (FAC) and are closely integrated with friendly ground
unit's own movement and fire. CAS can be both defensive or offensive, and great
care is required as friendlies will be operating near targets.
Suppression of Enemy Air Defense (SEAD)
The targets of air defense suppression missions are enemy ground positions that
pose a threat to friendly aircraft in a specific area. Threats may be
Surface-to-Air missiles sites (SAMs) or AAA units. Knocking out these defenses
is vital to allow friendly air forces to operate with impunity, and SEAD
aircraft are often the first to arrive over a target area and the last to
leave. They are usually the most demanding missions.
Sometimes referred to as Search and Destroy missions, the primary goal of Armed
Reconnaissance is to find and attack targets of opportunity. Mission orders are
not specific and any hostile forces within the assigned area should be
considered legitimate targets, including all types of mobile equipment.
Much like Strike missions, Anti-Ship missions involve attacking and destroying
ground targets - in this case, hostile watercraft. Enemy defenses on anti-ship
missions can vary tremendously, depending on the nature of the target.
Reconnaissance missions are usually non-combative to discover and report on
enemy positions. This information used for subsequent attacks or to prepare
All of the flyable aircraft modeled in Wings Over Israel share many of
the same cockpit instruments. While they may differ slightly in appearance,
they function in much the same way, as explained below. The following list is
of the basic instruments needed to play the game, and most aircraft will
actually have more than presented here.
1. Airspeed and Mach Number Indicator
A combination airspeed and Mach number indicator. On the A-4, the
needle displays the Indicated Air Speed (IAS) in knots on the outside wheel,
and an inner dial shows Mach number. The F-4's airspeed indicator is divided
into two parts: the right hand side of the gauge measures airspeed up to
roughly 200 knots, and the numerals on the left hand indicate a percentage of
Mach by tenths. The speed of sound varies according to air density and
2. True Airspeed Indicator
A measure of the aircraft's true airspeed (TAS) rather than its indicated
airspeed (IAS). TAS is velocity through space, while IAS is a measure of
airflow, variable by air density and wind conditions.
The altimeter measures altitude above sea level via barometric pressure.
4. Radar Altimeter
This gauge indicates feet about ground level as measured by a radar return.
5. Vertical Velocity Indicator (VVI)
Also known as a Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI), the VVI measures a gain or loss
of altitude by hundreds of feet per minute. Numbers on the top of the gauge
indicate a climb, numbers on the bottom a descent.
6. Attitude Indicator
Sometimes called a Horizon Ball, this gauge shows the aircraft's orientation
relative to the horizon with the sky shown as light blue. Horizontal white
lines show pitch in degrees of ten, and fixed hash marks to the outside are
used to measure bank angle.
7. Attitude Director Indicator
This instrument works similarly to the Attitude Indicator, but has more
detailed information, including a heading reference scale, bank indicator and a
turn and slip indicator.
8. Standby Attitude Indicator
A secondary Attitude Indicator in case the first fails.
9. Turn-and-Slip Indicator
This instrument measures bank angle and sliding on the yaw axis.
10. Angle-of-Attack Indicator
A measure of the pitch of the aircraft as divergent from its actual flight
path. In other words, it compares the difference between the flight path and
the actual pitch.
11. Heading Indicator
A rotating compass card viewed top down.
12. Standby Compass
A secondary compass in case others fail.
13. Radio Magnetic Indicator
Navigational equipment available on the A-4, this instrument contains
a fixed compass card with two rotating pointers. The wide pointer indicates the
ground track (heading) of the aircraft, and the narrow pointer indicates
bearing to the next waypoint.
14. Position and Homing Indicator (PHI)
The PHI is a basic navigation tool. Consisting primarily of a rotating compass
card, it also has a pointer marking the correct bearing to the next waypoint
and digital numerals to show the range to it in nautical miles.
15. Horizontal Situation Indicator (HIS)
Found in the F-4 Phantom II, the HIS is a more sophisticated navigation tool.
The large pointer just outside of the rotating compass card shows the correct
bearing to the next waypoint from the current position. The long arrow
bisecting the entire gauge shows the course from the previous waypoint to the
next waypoint. The digital numerals on the left, bottom side of the gauge
measure range to the next waypoint in nautical miles. Lastly, the innermost
component measures current course deviation from the line between the previous
to next waypoint.
16. Range Indicator
A basic gauge showing range to the next waypoint in nautical miles.
A timepiece set to local time.
This measures the amount of G forces acting on the aircraft.
19. Internal Fuel Quantity Indicator
A measure of available fuel in all internal tanks.
20. External Fuel Indicator
A measure of available fuel in external tank(s).
21. Total Fuel Quantity Indicator
A measure of total fuel remaining.
22. Fuel Flow Indicator
A measure of the amount of fuel flow at the current throttle setting (and
An indicator of engine revolutions per minute, measured as a percentage of
total allowable RPM.
24. Engine Nozzle Position Indicator
A gauge to indicate the current aperture of the jet nozzle.
25. Exhaust Gas Temperature Gauge
A measure of the heat of the exhaust from the jet engine. Excessively high heat
can indicate an engine malfunction or engine overuse at high settings.
26. Oil Pressure Gauge
An indicator of oil pressure in the engine. An overly low reading signifies a
27. Oil Quantity Indictor
A measure of the amount of oil present in the oil receptacle. A low reading
could signify a leak, or an overly hot engine. An engine that runs with too
little oil will sustain damage and may stop functioning altogether.
28. Hydraulic Pressure Gauge
A measure of the pressure of hydraulic fluids that are used to move control
surfaces. A low reading could mean reduced or total loss of control of any or
all of the ailerons, elevator and rudder.
29. Caution Light
A master warning light signifying a general malfunction. Check all gauges and
systems if lit.
30. Fire Warning Light
An indicator of a fire in the engine.
31. Armament Control Panel
A weapons panel to indicate status of weapons and related systems.
32. Radar Warning Receiver (RWR)
The RWR can detect, identify and characterize radar signals 360 degrees around
the plane, displaying threat type and the relative bearing. It can also
identify if the threatening radar is in search mode or is tracking the
33. Radar Scope
Displays the radar image.
Possibly the most complicated instrument in the cockpit, the radar can be
placed in standby mode to avoid detection by hostile forces and leaving it on
for prolonged periods may increase the chance of malfunction. There are four
selectable modes of operation: Search, Boresight, Ground Map and Terrain
Avoidance. Acquisition and Track modes are modes operated automatically by the
Not all aircraft in game have radar on board, and not all radar have the same
capabilities. The radar on Mirage III has maximum range of 27 miles, the F-4 radar has a
maximum search range of 200 miles and a track range of 50 miles; The A-4 radar
has Ground Map and Terrain Avoidance modes only.
In Search mode the radar antenna sweeps the sky in front of the aircraft,
displayed as a vertical line tracing across the scope. The range can be set to
10, 25, 50, 100 or 200 miles in the F-4. Longer range settings also scan a
greater arc vertically. Targets are displayed as a momentary blip on the
B-sweep, and a bracketed acquisition bar can be manually cycled through all
targets on the scope when the display range selected is within the radar's
track range. The radar system can then be ordered to attempt to lock on and
track the target with the acquisition symbol, at which point the system will
automatically transition to Acquisition mode.
Rather than sweeping, in Boresight mode the radar antenna is fixed on a
reference line directly ahead of the aircraft. Any target within +/- 3 degrees
of the CAGE gunsight circle is detected, and the radar will automatically go
into Acquisition mode to attempt to lock on and track it.
Acquisition Mode is an automatic transition layer between Search or Boresight
modes and Track mode. A Range Gate Strobe will move from the bottom of the
display toward the selected target symbol as the system attempts to lock on and
track the target. If successful, the radar will then automatically transition
to Track mode.
Once a target is being successfully tracked, Track mode will display angle and
range tracking information and the system will automatically keep the antenna
pointed towards the target. As long as the lock is maintained, a radar-guided
missile can be fired at the target. A large Range Rate Circle will appear in
the display with a small break in its perimeter, known as the Vc Gap . The
orientation of this gap indicates the rate of closure to the target. When the
gap is in the 12 o'clock position, this signals the distance to the target is
constant. A clockwise rotation of the gap designates decreasing range, and a
counterclockwise rotation an increase. The actual position of the Vc Gap
indicates the following:
Position of Gap
Rate of Closure
||Position of Gap
Rate of Closure
Ground Map Mode
In Ground Map mode, the radar will scan the terrain ahead with a PPI sweep,
tracing an arc across the face of the scope. Significant terrain contours and
any ground targets will be displayed.
Terrain Avoidance Mode
The simplest radar mode, Terrain Avoidance displays any obstacles that lie
ahead parallel to the aircraft's current flight path with a clearance plane
elevation fixed at 500 feet below. If an object appears in the scope, climbing
until it disappears will avoid it.
F-15A Baz carries APG-63 radar, the most advanced radar of its time. The radar
was the first US airborne radar to incorporate Programmable Signal Processor,
and its capabilities are significantly enhanced over earlier generation radars,
such as the one carried by F-4 Phantom.
There are three selectable modes available: Search, Track-While-Scan (TWS),
andAir Combat (ACM) modes. Single Target Track (STT) mode is entered by the
radar system when target track is established.
Search mode has the widest search volume and fastest search time, but only shows
minimum information regarding targets. The display shows top-down view
displaying radar contacts' azimuth and range relative to the radar. Target can
be designated using Cycle Radar Target keys, and Acquire Radar Target key can
be used to transition to STT mode.
Track-While-Scan (TWS) Mode
TWS mode displays additional information about the currently designated target
while still showing basic azimuth/range info on other targets. Radar in TWS
mode scans slightly smaller volume than in Search mode, and radar elevation is
automatically centered on the currently highlighted target. The display shows
top-down view displaying radar contacts' azimuth and range relative to the
radar, and target symbol may have a vector to show its movement direction.
Different targets can be designated using Cycle Radar Target keys, and Acquire
Radar Target key switches to STT mode.
Additional info may be displayed depending on the current air-to-air weapon type
Radar targets symbols while in TWS mode:
If Avionics Option is set to Hard, it takes the radar 3 hits before it can
gather enough information needed to show target vector and friendly info on
Single Target Track (STT) Mode
STT mode displays the all the same information as the TWS about a single
target, but does not display any other targets. Radar can be used to guide
radar-guided missiles (AIM-7 Sparrow) from this mode. Shows top-down view
displaying radar contacts' azimuth and range relative to the radar, and target
symbol has a vector to show its direction. Additional info may be displayed
depending on the current air-to-air weapon type selected.
Auto Acquisition Mode
Radar in Auto Acquisition mode only displays basic radar operation info, and
does not display any target info. The radar scans straight ahead and vertically
from 0 to 55 deg above the boresight line. It automatically locks on to the
first target it encounters in its search arc, and switches to STT mode.
Wings Over Israel is a flight simulation, and by nature includes
Air-to-Air and Air-to-Ground combat. This section covers the basic knowledge
guiding air combat, a necessity for any successful pilot.
Rules of Thumb
There are a few basic rules of thumb that all fighter pilots live by in combat,
especially when in gun range. Learn them well, as they may just save your
virtual life! The first is "Lose sight, lose the fight." In simple terms, this
means always keep your eye on enemy aircraft and constantly analyze their
position and orientation relative to yours. The moment you lose sight of a
bandit you can no longer tell how it is maneuvering or if it is threatening
your aircraft. Make it your first priority to re-establish sight of it!
A second basic maxim of ACM (Air Combat Maneuvering) is "Speed is life!" This
rule holds true for a couple of reasons, but an important one is that speed can
easily be cashed in for altitude. Similarly, a high flying aircraft can dive to
pick up speed and for this reason "Altitude is life!" is also a popular saying.
This trade-off between altitude and speed is known as "energy." A fighter at a
high speed and high altitude is almost untouchable (it has very high energy and
therefore lots of options), a low flying fast aircraft or a lower speed fighter
with altitude both have medium energy (each have a few different options)
whereas a low flying, low speed aircraft that has used up all its "E" has next
to no options. Needless to say, energy management and keeping your options open
is critical in a dogfight.
A third basic tip is not to fly straight and level in combat. Keeping a
constant course makes you easy prey and is very predictable. Also, learn to
think in three dimensions: not only do aircraft move about on a horizontal
plane, but they can also use the vertical one very effectively. By using
vertical maneuvers, a pilot can easily turn the tables on an opponent that
insists on making only flat turns.
Using the Lift Vector
As explained in the Flight Basics section, the lift vector is the direction in
which lift is applied on an airframe. Lift as a force is not only used to
counter gravity, but it can also be used in maneuvers. Since lift is
effectively "pushing" your aircraft in a known and constant direction, you can
use that force to your advantage. Rolling an aircraft so that your lift vector
points towards your target will force you to accelerate towards it;
subsequently increasing pitch by pulling back on the stick will then increase
your turn rate toward it (subject to certain limits, see below). When following
an enemy aircraft, keeping your lift vector on the same plane of motion as that
of your foe can help you turn inside of it and set up a kill.
G force is the measurement of inertial loads, with 1G being the normal force of
gravity. The higher an aircraft's velocity, the easier it is to increase G
loading during maneuvers. G forces act on both pilots and aircraft, sometimes
with negative consequences. Sustained high positive Gs send blood rushing out
of a pilot's head, and can lead to increasingly grayed vision and eventually
unconsciousness, known as "black out." Human beings are much less tolerant to
negative Gs, which force blood into the head and can lead to a condition known
as "red out" as vessels in the eye become engorged and vision is negatively
affected. In order to recover from either black out or red out, G loads must be
reduced to allow more normal blood flow to the brain and eyes. Aircraft can
also be damaged if Gs are allowed to climb too high, even if only for a moment.
As airspeed decreases the ability to initiate and hold G forces is reduced.
Turn Rate versus Turn Radius
Turn Radius is the size of a circle flown by an aircraft as measured from the
center and decreases as velocity is reduced. While this is an important figure,
the fighter that can turn the tightest isn't always at an advantage in a
dogfight. Turn Rate - the speed with which the nose changes heading, measured
in degrees per second - is even more significant. Since firing air to air
weapons is generally done from the forward aspect of a fighter, the rate at
which the nose can be brought to bear onto a target is critical. Thus, even
though an aircraft may be creating a wider circle than its opponent, if it can
travel around that circle more quickly, it is at an advantage. At any given
velocity and G load, an aircraft has a specific turn radius and turn rate.
At high speeds turn rate is limited by the amount of G forces that can be
sustained. As speed lowers and maximum Gs are maintained, turn rate increases.
This seems ideal but, as mentioned above, as airspeed is reduced, so is the
ability to hold Gs. The slowest speed at which maximum Gs can be applied is
known as Corner Velocity and is the point at which an aircraft has the maximum
instantaneous turn rate. Corner Velocity will vary between aircraft and is
important to learn, as this is where a fighter will perform at its best.
Unfortunately, most aircraft don't have enough thrust to maintain this velocity
under maximum G loads and will find that their turn rate decays as their speed
and hence Gs decrease. The maximum constant velocity that can be held with the
highest steady G load is known as Sustained Corner Velocity and results in a
steady rate of turn. One of the reasons energy management is critical is so
that pilots can temporarily achieve corner velocities above the sustained rate
and as close as possible to the instantaneous turn rate.
Named after Max Immelman, a German pilot during the dawn of aerial combat, WWI,
this move involves pulling back on the stick and climbing through the vertical
as part of a half loop. At the top of the loop, when the aircraft is inverted,
the pilot rolls through 180 degrees to be right side up and facing the opposite
direction from where the maneuver was started. The aircraft finishes at a
higher altitude than it began, with a resultant loss in velocity. Useful for
changing direction quickly, it can be dangerous when pursued closely since an
opponent can easily achieve a firing solution when the plane is slow towards
the top of the loop. Insufficient speed before entering an Immelman will result
in a stall.
The Split-S can be considered the counterpart to the Immelman, since it is also
a half loop. However, in this case the pilot rolls inverted before pulling back
on the stick and then performs the half loop while descending. The end result
is a 180 degree change in direction, a loss of altitude and a gain in airspeed.
It is critical that it be performed with sufficient height to avoid flying into
the ground. Mainly a defensive move, it can also be used if an opponent flies
beneath you in the opposite direction. The half roll is executed before the
loop since a pilot can withstand many more positive Gs than negative ones.
A break turn is used to quickly defeat a guns solution by a hostile aircraft
that is rapidly closing from the rear aspect. It is executed by banking either
right or left and pulling back on the stick rapidly so as to carve a tight turn
and force an overshoot. It is imperative to turn into the attacker and not away
from him, as the latter would give him an even easier shot. A break turn is
best performed level with the horizon or lower to avoid a pop-up in altitude
and loss of speed, thus unwittingly becoming an even easier target. Break turns
are most effective when the pursuer has a significant speed advantage and
therefore cannot pull as tight a turn.
High and Low Yo-Yo
A Yo-Yo, whether high or low, is a very effective offensive tactic against an
opponent that insists on making flat turns. Its principle advantage is that by
using the vertical plane an aggressor can create an offset path of pursuit and
thus gain an angle on the enemy. The Yo-Yo is performed by rolling outside of
the horizontal plane during a turn and pitching up or down, followed by an
opposite roll back into the original turn. The end result is that you will have
effectively "cut the corner" of the flat circle and will find yourself more
squarely on your opponent's rear. The High Yo-Yo should be used when you have
energy to spare and are above Corner Velocity, while the Low Yo-Yo should be
used when you need to gain speed to reach your instantaneous turn rate.
The F-4 Phantom II are equipped with a Lead Computing
Optical Sight System (LCOSS). This gunsight can be operated in three modes:
CAGE, A/A and A/G.
In CAGE mode the gunsight reticle is fixed along the radar boresight line of
the aircraft. When selecting Air-to-Air missiles the LCOSS automatically goes
into CAGE mode.
In A/A (Air-to-Air) mode and with the cannon selected, the gunsight is placed in
lead computing mode with the reticle position governed by the sight gyro and
radar range. By these means the sight effectively predicts where cannon fire
will go, given your current G load and range to a selected target. Place the
predictor sight onto the target and fire guns to hit it. If no air target is
selected, the sight defaults to a range of 1,000 feet.
In A/G (Air-to-Ground) mode, the sight is manually depressible to 245 mil below
the fuselage line.
In F-4 Phantom II, the LCOSS also has roll tabs and a range bar. The range bar
moves from roughly the 1 o'clock position (delineating maximum range) to the 6
o'clock (showing minimum range) and reflects different distances according to
the weapon selected.
Aerial combat during the Korean War and even into the early 1960s was still
very much a visual affair. While bogeys could be plotted on airborne radar at
quite a distance, fire control technologies that existed were quite primitive
by today's standards and downright unreliable. Heat-seeking missiles had to be
fired within very specific parameters, and cannon still proved very effective
for in-close fighting. This lesson is evident by the case of the F-4 Phantom
II, which began life without any onboard cannon and was overly reliant on
missiles; it later had gun pods fitted, and finally had a 20mm Vulcan cannon
installed in the nose by 1967.
On board fire control radars of the 1960s could only lock onto one enemy at a
time, and radar-homing missiles had to "ride the beam" to their targets, not
having their own independent guidance systems.
Missile technology evolved quickly, though, and Air-to-Air capabilities
steadily increased throughout the decade.
Many aircraft can only be equipped with heat-seeking missiles and don't have the
capability to fire radar-guided ones. Infrared (IR) missiles track the heat
signature produced by a jet's exhaust. To be used successfully, they have to be
fired from the rear aspect of the target; otherwise, they will not pick up a
heat source properly. Early versions were sometimes fooled by other objects
that radiate heat against the sky like the sun or clouds. Even the most modern
heat-seeking missiles can still be fooled by flares.
When AIM-9 missiles are selected, you will hear a constant medium pitched tone
known as a "growl." As the IR seeker head detects and locks onto a source, this
pitch will change to a high tone. The sensor of a heat-seeking missile has a
limited field of view, so in order to "get a tone," the target has to be
roughly within your gunsight (it will have automatically switched to CAGE mode)
and within range of the seeker head.
Early Sidewinder missiles could not be fired when pulling too many Gs.
Likewise, a missile also has maneuverability limits, and if it is fired from
too close a range or too high an aspect angle, it may not be able to turn
sharply enough to engage the target. The best way to ensure your missile hits
is to have a constant tone and to be following the target in pure pursuit
without a high G load. The maneuverability and/or maximum range of Sidewinder
missiles improves with each variant.
If your target is too close to use AIM-9 missiles, use your guns!
Radar-homing missiles (RHM) rely on information from a radar signature to find
their way to a target. They operate at a much greater range than heat-seeking
missiles and can be fired from any aspect, meaning you do not have to maneuver
to the rear of a bandit. While in flight, they require radar information
constantly provided by the aircraft from which they were launched. Unlike a
heat-seeking missile which is "fire and forget", their guidance depends on a
radar lock being kept by your radar and the target being illuminated. At longer
ranges this can be defeated by enemy radar jamming, and only one target can be
illuminated at a time. Hostile aircraft can also employ chaff defensively to
defeat radar locks.
For information on how to achieve a radar lock using your radar scope, view the
Using the Radar section of this manual.
There are two types of air-to-ground guided missiles available in Wings Over
Israel: 1) Anti-radiation missile (ARM), such as AGM-45 Shrike and
AGM-78 Standard ARM, and 2) Electro-Optical (EO) weapons, including AGM-65
Anti-Radiation Missile (ARM)
Anti-radiation seeker head homes in on the emitted signal from enemy ground
radar installation and is completely self-guided. To use these missiles, simply
point the aircraft toward a known enemy radar, and fire. If the enemy radar is
within the range, it'll automatically lock on and guide itself to the target.
Electro-Optical (EO) Guided Weapon
EO weapons are guided using small TV camera located on the nose of the weapon.
Once EO-guided weapon is selected, the radarscope will display the image seen
by the EO seeker of the selected weapon. To use EO-guided weapon, simply select
the visual target (by hitting Select Ground Target key), and if the target is
in seeker range and in seeker field-of-view, the weapon will automatically
lock-on to the selected target. The radar display will show the weapon seeker
tracking the target, and the Heads-Up-Display will display a symbol indicating
where the target is located. Once fired, EO-guided weapons are
"fire-and-forget", and the attacking aircraft may immediately switch target for
next weapon without losing guidance.
Israel Defense Force/Air Force:
A-4E Ahit ('73)
A-4H Ahit ('73)
Mirage IIICJ Shahak
Hunter F.Mk 59
Hunter F.Mk 70
Hunter F.Mk 73
Super Mystère B.2
20mm Mk. 12
The Mk. 12 is the standard cannon armament used by the US Navy. It has a muzzle
velocity of 1,010 meters per second (m/sec) and a rate of fire of 1,200 rounds
per minute (rpm). It has a reputation for being inaccurate and unreliable, yet
is used on almost all US Navy fighter and attack aircraft, including the A-4
Vulcan The M61 is a six-barreled, externally-powered, rotary cannon firing at
rate of 6,000 rpm. It is the current standard cannon armament for the US Air
Force, and is mounted internally on the F-4E version of the Phantom II. The M61
Vulcan cannon is also available as an external gun pod, in the form of SUU-23/A
30mm DEFA 552
30mm DEFA 552 is the standard cannon used on French aircraft. It was designed
in the late 1940s and entered service starting in 1954. The 30mm DEFA is used
on Super Mystère, Mirage and their Israeli derivatives such as Sa'ar, Nesher,
and Kfir, as well as Israeli variants of Skyhawk, the A-4H.
The Infra-red (IR) homing AIM-9 missile is one of the most widely used
Air-to-Air missiles in the world, with over 110,000 produced. It is simple,
easy to use, and reliable; it is employed by a wide variety of Western fixed
wing combat aircraft and helicopters. The performance of the AIM-9B, the first
production version entering service in 1956, was unsatisfactory. Its launch
load factor is limited to 2G, and its seeker head can be easily be fooled and
locks onto false heat signatures. It has a range limit of 2.6 miles, and the
missile is unable to follow MiGs turning at more than 5 G's. To score hits, the
launching aircraft has to be properly positioned with great attention paid to
closure rate and range.
The AIM-9D, entering service in 1966, is a much superior version of the
Sidewinder developed and used by the US Navy. It has a new seeker head and new
motor for vastly improved range and performance. AIM-9D is exported to and used
by the Israeli Defense Force/Air Force.
The AIM-9G is a development of the AIM-9D Sidewinder used by the US Navy. First
introduced in 1968, it has a more sensitive seeker head and much greater
maneuvering capability, making it much more effective in aerial combat. AIM-9G
is exported to and used by the Israeli Defense Force/Air Force.
The AIM-9H, entering service in 1970, is the next development of the US Navy's
Sidewinder series, with improved reliability. AIM-9H is exported to and used by
the Israeli Defense Force/Air Force.
The AIM-9L, introduced in 1978 after being developed jointly by the US Air
Force and the Navy, represents a major advance in the Sidewinder development -
it is the first "all-aspect" Sidewinder missile, with ability to attack target
from all angles, even from head-on. The pilots no longer have to maneuver
behind the target for a missile shot, resulting in dramatic improvement in the
effectiveness over the earlier models.
The Shafrir is an IR seeking air-to-air missile developed domestically by then
budding Israeli defense industry. Entering service just after the Six-Day War
when Israel was under arms embargo from France, their main weapons supplier at
that time, Shafrir-2 had similar capability as AIM-9D version of the
Python-3 is the next generation of air-to-air weapon developed by Israel.
Rushed into service in 1982 just in time for the Lebanon War, it had all-aspect
capability like the AIM-9L version of the Sidewinder, but with superior speed,
turning radius, and range.
The AIM-7E, entering service in 1965, is the improved version of the Sparrow.
It uses a new propulsion system, giving it better range and performance.
The AIM-7E-2 Sparrow, so called "Dogfight Sparrow", is an AIM-7E missile
modified for use in the short minimum-range and high-G firing required in
dogfights. The Dogfight Sparrow entered service in 1970.
Improved version of Sparrow introduced in 1976, the AIM-7F has dual-stage
rocket motor for longer range, solid-state electronics for improved
reliability, and a larger warhead for increased lethality.
Anti-Radiation Missiles (ARM)
Entering service with the US Navy in 1965 and then with the US Air Force, the
AGM-45A Shrike is a weapon used to destroy enemy Surface-to-Air Missile (SAM)
sites. Its anti-radiation seeker head homes in on the emitted signal from a
ground radar installation and is completely self-guided. When a SAM site turns
off its radar, the AGM-45A will lose its lock and does not have the capability
to continue to target. Its maximum range is roughly 10 miles.
Improved version of the original AGM-45A Shrike, with a new propulsion system
giving it a much better range (about 28 miles). The AIM-45B began entering
service in 1970.
AGM-78B Standard ARM
Produced in 1968, the AGM-78B is a anti-radiation missile based on US Navy's
Standard Surface-to-Air Missile body. Its seeker head has a much greater
overall field of view, and it has the capability to track many different
frequencies of radar. It also has a basic memory circuit allowing it to
continue to target even after the radar source stops emitting. Its maximum
range is roughly 56 miles.
Electro-Optical (EO) Guided Weapons
The AGM-65A Maverick is an electro-optically guided air-to-ground missile
designed primarily for close-air-support. It provides stand-off
capability against a wide variety of tactical targets, including tanks, air
defenses, and other vehicles. The AGM-65A entered service in 1972, and its TV
guidance system has maximum lock-on range of about 6 miles.
The AGM-65B is an improved Maverick, with a scene magnification capability
allowing it to lock-on to a target at greater range (about 12 miles).
Mk. 1 Mod 0 Walleye I
The Walleye series of bombs are Electro-optically guided bombs developed by the
US Navy. The Mk. 1 Mod 0 Walleye I entered service in 1967, and its TV guidance
has lock-on range of approximately 3 miles. The bomb has no propulsion unit,
and the maximum range varies depending on the release altitude.
Mk. 5 Mod 4 Walleye II
The Mk. 5 Mod 4 Walleye II, entering service in 1974, is a larger warhead
version of the Walleye. It also features an improved TV guidance unit, giving
it an increased lock-on range of about 4.5 miles.
LAU-3/A Rocket Pod
The LAU-3/A Rocket Pod carries nineteen 2.75" unguided rockets with explosive
warheads. The pods are usually mounted in tandem on under-wing pylons.
LAU-10/A Rocket Pod
The LAU-10/A Rocket Pod carries four 5" unguided rockets with explosive
warheads. The pods are also usually mounted in tandem.
The M-117 bomb is a conventional general purpose bomb weighting 750 lb.
The Mk.80 Series of bombs (Mk.81, 82, 83, 84) are the standard low-drag,
general- purpose bombs.
Mk.82 Snakeye Retarded Bomb
The Mk.82 Snakeye is a 500-lb bomb that is equipped with special fins that open
up and extend behind the bomb like an umbrella, slowing it down dramatically.
Used in low-altitude level bombing, this allows the launching aircraft time to
be clear of the bomb's blast radius.
Mk.20 Rockeye Cluster Bomb
The Mk.20 Rockeye Cluster bomb is a free fall weapon that carries hundreds of
small bomblets that can be spread across a great area upon release. Individual
bomblet has shape charged warhead that are set to explode on impact. The
Rockeye is effective against both hard targets like armor and soft skinned
The BLU-1 Napalm bomb is an aluminum canister filled with fuel gel. Tumbling
end over end when released, as it strikes a target or the ground the container
will rupture, spreading highly flammable napalm that sticks to most structures.
Upon impact, fuses rapidly ignite the fuel gel. Napalm is effective against
personnel, light structures and vehicles.
The game has a default set of key commands. You can alter them by opening the
Options Screen. Click the green aircraft icon in the upper left corner
of the screen, then select Control. The default control list is loaded by
default, but you can click Customize to change the key mappings. If you choose
to customize, a new *.INI file will be saved in the Controls subdirectory under
the main game folder.
||End/abort mission and display the Debrief Screen.
||Close the game immediately and return to the desktop.
||Pause the game. (You can still perform many functions while the
game is paused.)
||Change the rate at which time passes - x2 (twice as fast), x4
(four times as fast), x8 (eight times as fast) and x1 (normal speed).
||Reset time compression back to x1.
||Jump to the next mission encounter. You can use this option only
when no enemy targets are present. When pressed, this key takes you to the next
action area and eliminates all travel time (including waypoints).
||Display the radio communication menu. You can then press the
number keys (1 through 9 at the top of the keyboard) to select a specific menu
or message. (See In-Flight Communication for specific messages and their
|` (accent grave)
||Initiate chat mode in multiplayer play. Once in chat mode, all
keyboard functions cease to operate, and all keys are sent to the chat window.
(Your joystick and mouse, however, work normally.)
Esc Aborts message and exits chat mode.
Enter Sends the chat message to all team members and exits chat mode.
|Shift+` (accent grave)
||Initiate a chat with an enemy player.
|Ctrl+` (accent grave)
||Initiate a chat with a friendly player.
|Alt+` (accent grave)
||Initiate a chat with the closest visual target.
||Toggle autopilot on/off. In Autopilot mode, your aircraft flies
toward the next waypoint. Note that moving the joystick or mouse will cancel
autopilot. Autopilot also does not pause for enemy encounters.
||Toggle wing-leveling action. When activated, this feature restores
level flight and keeps the aircraft moving in a straight line. If you move the
joystick or mouse while this function is active, the game will drop out of
||Select next waypoint.
||Select previous waypoint.
||Display the in-flight map, a version of the Planning Map, but with
less information. It basically shows your current position and the position of
known mission-critical objects.
||Take a screen shot. The current scene will be saved as a bitmap
image in the ScreenShots folder.
Note: In all interior views, you can move the mouse to pan the view up, down,
left and right.
||Display the interior, front cockpit view.
Display the interior, front cockpit wide view.
Display the interior, front cockpit narrow (gunsight) view.
||Show a front 45-degrees up view from inside the cockpit.
||Toggle the padlock view, keeping the selected target in your view
as long as it's in range. This option attempts to keep your current foe
centered in your view. Pressing this key a second time switches the view back
to front cockpit view (F1).
||Temporarily pan the view in a given direction. The view returns to
its previous position when you release the key.
Numpad Del (.)
|Toggle cockpit art on/off, leaving only the HUD targeting circle.
|Display a forward view of the dashboard, looking down at the
||Display the forward view.
Numpad 7 / 4 / 1
||Display the left front / left / left rear view, respectively.
Numpad 9 / 6 / 3
||Display the right front / right / right rear view, respectively.
||Add 45 degrees of vertical angle to any other view. (Press this
key in conjunction with the other Numpad view keys.)
Display an external, over-the-shoulder ("chase plane") view.
||Show an external rear view. Use this view to
"Check Six" (look behind you).
||Cycle through external views of various aircraft in the mission.
Pressing this key multiple times in succession switches to the next aircraft.
||As above, but in reverse order. Pressing this key multiple times
switches to the previous aircraft.
||Display an external view of the next ground object. Pressing this
key multiple times switches to the next ground object.
||As above, but in reverse order. Pressing this key multiple times
switches to the previous ground object.
||Display an enlarged view of your current visual target.
||Show a line-of-sight view to your target. This perspective puts
your current target in the center of the screen and lines it up with an
external view of your aircraft in the foreground.
||As above, but reversed. Your aircraft appears in the middle of the
screen, and the target appears in the foreground.
||Switch to the weapon camera view. You view everything from the
weapon's perspective, corresponding to the last weapon you fired.
||Show a line-of-sight view from your weapon to your aircraft. This
perspective puts your weapon in the center of the screen and lines it up with
an external view of your aircraft in the foreground.
||As above, but reversed. Your aircraft appears in the center of the
screen, and your weapon appears in the foreground.
||Display an external, fly-by view. You see your aircraft make an
approach, fly past, and then exit your view.
||Display the view from the nearest tower to your aircraft.
|Numpad + / -
||Zoom the camera view in (+) or out (-). You can also use the wheel
on your mouse if it's equipped with one.
||Pan the view in the desired direction. You can also move the mouse
in any direction to pan.
|Left / right mouse buttons
||Zoom the view in or out. This can be very useful for examining
your aircraft from an external camera view, or for reading dashboard
You can control your aircraft by using a joystick or the keyboard. If you have a
programmable joystick, many of the following functions can be assigned to your
joystick buttons and/or wheels.
Note that the aircraft takes a few seconds to respond to your flight commands.
Be careful not to over steer, or you may quickly get into trouble.
|Left / right arrow keys
||Roll the aircraft (dips the wings) left or right.
|Up / down arrow keys
||Pitch the nose of the aircraft up or down.
|, / . (comma / period)
||Turn the rudder left and right. Alternatively, you can also use a
|= / - (not Numpad)
||Increase or decrease throttle. Note that you can also use an
external throttle to control speed.
||Extend flaps down by one notch. Most aircraft flaps have three
Up (Retracted) - no extra lift (good for normal flight)
1/3 (Partially extended) - some extra lift (good for taking off and avoiding
stalls during tight or vertical maneuvers)
Down (Fully extended) - lots of extra lift and drag (good for landing)
||Retract flaps by one notch. Flaps are automatically raised after
you reach a certain speed in order to prevent damage.
||Toggle speedbrakes (extend/retract). Use your airbrakes in the air
to quickly bleed off speed.
||Toggle wheel brakes (engage/disengage). Use this command when
landing to reduce speed, but make sure you wait until you've touched down.
||Raise/lower landing gear.
||Cycle through external navigation light settings - off / flashing
Turn engine on/off.
||Eject from the aircraft, ending the mission.
||Switch to next Air-to-Air (A/A) weapon.
||Switch to previous Air-to-Air weapon.
||Switch to next Air-to-Ground (A/G) weapons.
||Switch to previous Air-to-Ground weapon.
||Fire primary gun or cannon. You can also use joystick button 1 to
||Fire/release currently selected missile, bomb, or rocket. You can
also use joystick button #2.
||Jettison (drop) external fuel tanks. You can do this to gain
maneuverability, as long as you have enough fuel to return to base.
||Jettison all external weapons except for A/A missiles.
||Switch to next gunsight mode - CAGE / Air-to-Air (A/A) /
Air-to-Ground (A/G). Whenever you select a new weapon, the proper gunsight mode
||Switch to previous gunsight mode.
||Cycle to next ripple setting. For bombs, this key determines the
ripple setting, or how many bombs are released at once when you press Enter.
The number of weapons per launch varies by aircraft.
||Cycle to previous ripple or salvo setting.
||Cycle to next ripple interval setting. This determines the time
between each bomb release when more than one bombs are rippled.
||Cycle to previous ripple interval setting.
||Cycle to next gun group - usually 2 upper guns / 2 lower guns /
all 4 guns. Some aircraft have multiple gun groups or gun pods. Pressing this
key activates a different set of guns. When you press Spacebar, only the
selected guns will fire rounds.
||Cycle to previous gun group setting.
||Toggle electronic counter measures (ECM) on/off. For aircraft
equipped with an ECM, this can jam the enemy radar. However, it gives away your
location to the enemy.
||Drop Flare. For aircraft equipped with an decoy dispenser, flares
can be deployed to spoof incoming heat-seeking missiles.
||Drop Chaff. For aircraft equipped with an decoy dispenser, chaff
can be deployed to spoof incoming radar-guided missiles and break enemy radar
||Turn radar off.. If the radar is off, pressing PgUp will turn it
||Switch to next radar mode - Search / Boresight / Ground Map /
Terrain Avoidance. Note that not all modes are available on all aircraft.
Additionally, the Gameplay option settings can affect what you see on the
radar. When the radar is in Acquisition or Tracking mode, this key instead
causes the radar to revert back to its pre-acquisition setting (either Search
or Boresight mode).
||Cycle to previous radar mode.
||Cycle to next radar range setting. Note that different aircraft
have different radar ranges.
||Cycle to previous radar range setting.
||Select the next radar target on the radar display. Depending on
your Gameplay option settings, the radar target may only appear as a momentary
blip during each sweep. A target must be visible in order for the radar to
enter Acquisition mode.
||Cycle to previous radar target on the radar display.
||Acquire and lock on the currently selected target. Acquisition
mode is a transitional mode between Search mode and Track mode. Once you
initiate acquisition, you lose all other radar contacts. When the radar is able
to acquire a full system lock, it enters Tracking mode. You can then fire your
radar-guided missile at the selected target.
||Attempt to acquire the current visual target. This slews the radar
azimuth and elevation in order to point at the visual target. If the target
falls within the radar constraints, the radar tries to enter Acquisition mode
and acquire that target.
||Deselect the current radar target. This key causes the radar to go
back into Search or Boresight mode. Note that you can also deselect a target by
cycling through radar modes.
||Designate the next enemy or unidentified aircraft as your visual
target. This places square brackets on the head-up display (HUD). If the target
moves out of view, the brackets turn into a cone that points in the direction
of the target. Additional target information may also appear in the lower right
corner of your viewscreen, depending on your HUD settings.
||Select previous enemy or unidentified aircraft as your visual
||Select closest enemy or unidentified aircraft as your visual
||Select next friendly or neutral aircraft as your visual target.
||Select previous friendly or neutral aircraft as your visual
||Select closest friendly or neutral aircraft as your visual target.
||Select next enemy ground object as your visual target.
||Select previous enemy ground object as your visual target.
||Select closest enemy ground object as your visual target.
|Numpad * (asterisk)
||Target the object closest to the center of view.
||Target the last object mentioned in the radio call - an enemy
aircraft (bandit), incoming missile, friendly bomber, airport, etc. For radio
calls that do not involve targetable objects, the caller of the object, if
appropriate, may be targeted. Some objects might not be visible or targetable.
||Target the caller of the last radio call, if appropriate.
||Select the current radar target as your visual target. You must
have the target selected on your radar, but you don't need a full lock to
select this as a visual target.
||Animation key 1 (for third-party add-ons).
||Animation key 2 (for third-party add-ons).
||Animation key 3 (for third-party add-ons).
||Animation key 4 (for third-party add-ons).
||Animation key 5 (for third-party add-ons).
||Animation key 6 (for third-party add-ons).
||Animation key 7 (for third-party add-ons).
||Animation key 8 (for third-party add-ons).
||Animation key 9 (for third-party add-ons).